Living in no particular time or place, Job was a good man who was subjected to untold afflictions in a sort of bet between God and Satan.
God was very proud of Job and boasted to Satan, "he is a truly good person, who respects me and refuses to do evil." Satan rose to the challenge and tried to prove that Job could be made to curse God, if he suffered enough. And so, all Job's possessions were destroyed and his children were killed, and Job himself ended up covered in sores.
Job complained to God about his unfair treament for 30 chapters of the Bible, while his orthodox friends told him to sort his attitude, offering theological explanations for his problems.
Finally God showed up, told Job that he was wrong, told his friends that he was right, and restored his health and possessions and gave him a new family.
Job is preserved in the English language as the paragon of patience, as in "Ooh, you'd try the patience of Job". This is pretty good PR for someone who spends about 30 chapters of his book moaning on and on about how unfair God's been to him.
According to medieval legend, musicians came to comfort Job with sweet melodies. He could offer them no payment except a handful of his scabs, but fortunately they turned into gold.
Job is one of the patron saints of hospitals.
In medieval art, Job's wife is often shown whipping him or throwing a bucket of water over him.
"The pencil of the Holy Ghost hath laboured more in describing the afflictions of Job than the felicities of Solomon." Francis Bacon
"Although Jesus Christ in a deluge of sophistical theology did much to improve God's image, Job is still winning the argument, and the book of Job is insidiously subversive." Louis de Bernières